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  DVD Authoring Terminology

Terms from DVD authoring, including DVD and CD optical media formats, DVD video and audio formats, and home theatre and surround-sound audio.

Derived from Desktop DVD Authoring. Used with permission.

(See the DVD Authoring Glossary for an alphabetical listing of these terms.)

See Digital Video Editing Terminology for common terms from digital video and audio editing and Adobe Premiere, including analog formats, multimedia file and compression formats, and data size and rate measurements.


Contents

Logical and Physical Formats

DVD-Video Authoring

DVD Technical


- DVD Equipment -

DVD player -- Either a consumer electronics hardware product designed to connect to a television set to play back DVD movies (a set-top DVD player) or a computer software application that plays DVD movies from a computer DVD drive (a DVD player application). See also DVD recorder.

set-top DVD player -- A consumer electronics hardware product that plays back DVD movies. The player box can connect to a television set, to an advanced digital or widescreen display, and/or to a surround-sound audio system. See also DVD player application, DVD recorder.

DVD recorder -- A consumer electronics hardware product that acts like a digital VCR. Records television programming and/or input video (such as from a camcorder) to DVD disc. Some DVD Authoring computer software applications also can record directly from video input to a DVD drive. See also set-top DVD player.

DVD player application -- A computer software application that plays DVD movies from a computer DVD drive. See also set-top DVD player.

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- Media Formats - Discs and Disks and Tape -

disc -- Term commonly used to refer to optical storage devices such as DVD and CD. See also disk.

disk -- Term commonly used to refer to magnetic storage devices such as hard disks. See also disc.

magnetic disk -- Term used for storage media such as hard disks and floppy discs that record data using magnetic fields. See also optical disc.

optical disc -- Removable storage medium, such as DVD and CD, that is read (and written) with laser light. See also magnetic disk.

caddy -- A case to store and protect a disc when not in use. Many DVD-RAMs use a caddy to hold the disc.

compact disc (CD) -- An optical digital disc format used both for prerecorded content, especially music (CD-Audio), and as recordable media for consumer devices and computers (CD-R and CD-RW). The full-size 120mm (12cm) diameter disc originally stored 650 MB, or 60 minutes of CD-Audio, now also available in 700 MB / 80-minute capacity. Also available in smaller sizes and specialty shapes (business cards, for example). See also CD-R, CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD, Video CD.

DVD -- Originally an acronym for Digital Versatile Disc (or Digital Video Disc). A family of optical disc formats used both for prerecorded content, especially movies, and as recordable media for consumer devices and computers (that is, DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM). A family of data format standards for video, audio, and data storage (that is, DVD-Video and DVD-Audio) for consumer electronics products and computers. DVD discs are the same diameter as CD discs (120mm. or 12 cm, in diameter), and most formats hold 4.7 GB (actually billion bytes) of data on a side. A smaller size mini-DVD disc is also used, especially in camcorders.

mini-DVD -- A smaller-diameter DVD disc format, especially for use in portable camcorders. The disc diameter is 8cm (80mm), compared to 120mm (12cm) for full-size DVD discs.

single-sided disc -- A DVD disc with data on one side. The second side is typically used for a label, like a CD disc. The storage capacity of DVD formats is 4.7 GB (actually billion bytes) per side. Also called DVD-5. See also double-sided disc, dual-layer disc.

double-sided disc -- A DVD disc with both sides used for data storage (unlike a manufactured DVD-Video or CD Audio disc with one side used for the label). Often used to distribute two versions of a commercial movie, with a widescreen version on one side and a standard 4:3 aspect ration on the other. With both sides, the storage capacity doubles from 4.7 to 9.4 GB (actually billion bytes). Also called DVD-10. See also dual-layer disc.

dual-layer disc -- A DVD disc with two layers of data on a side, accessed by refocusing the laser beam through the top layer to read the second layer. Often used to distribute a commercial title that is too long for a single-sided DVD while avoiding the need to continue the movie on a second disc. With the second layer, the storage capacity almost doubles from 4.7 to 8.5 GB (actually billion bytes). Also called DVD-9. See also double-sided disc.

DVD-5 -- Single-sized DVD disc format, with a storage capacity of 4.7GB (actually billion bytes).

DVD-9 -- Dual-layer DVD disc format, with a storage capacity of 8.5GB (actually billion bytes).

DVD-10 -- Double-sided DVD disc format, with a storage capacity of 9.4GB (actually billion bytes).

DLT -- Acronym for Digital Linear Tape. A half-inch magnetic tape format used extensively for computer file backup and retrieval. Commonly used for transferring premastered DVD productions to a replication facility for manufacturing.

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- CD - Logical Formats -

CD-Audio -- A consumer electronics format for prerecorded music on compact disc. CD-Audio discs include only the audio data for each track. Other ancillary information, such as song titles or album and artist information can be accessed from online databases. See also Video CD.

SACD -- Acronym for Super Audio Compact Disc. A high-quality, audio format promoted by Sony and Philips in competition with DVD-Audio. Typically manufactured as a dual-layer disc, with a CD-Audio layer with a version of the album that can be played in standard CD players. Targeted to audiophiles.

DVD on CD -- A CD disc containing a DVD-format directory (VIDEO_TS) and files. Storing the contents of a DVD disc on a CD provides a convenient and less-expensive way to share a short DVD production (about 18 minutes at reasonable quality). DVD on CD discs can be played on a computer with DVD player software, but typically do not play on set-top DVD players. To make these discs more universally playable on any computer, some DVD authoring tools provide the option to include a DVD player software application on the CD disc. See also Video CD.

Video CD (VCD) -- A consumer format for storing video presentations on CD discs. VCD can fit 74 minutes of "VHS-quality" video on a CD, but at lower video resolution than DVD using the older MPEG-1 compression format. The VCD format is especially popular in Asia as format for distributing commercial movies and videos. Many DVD authoring tools provide the option to author to VCD format, and most DVD players can play the format. This provides an inexpensive option for sharing productions with most computers. Many set-top DVD players also can play VCDs. See also DAT, DVD on CD, SVCD.

SVCD -- Acronym for Super Video CD. A higher-quality format for video on CD discs than Video CD. The SVCD format uses the same MPEG-2 video compression format as DVD, although at a lower resolution, in order to fit around 35 minutes of "near-DVD" quality material on a CD. Because many set-top DVD players do not support SVCD format, it is also not supported by some DVD authoring tools. See also Video CD (VCD).

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- DVD - Logical Formats -

DVD-Video -- A DVD Forum-defined format for movies on DVD, including high-quality video and surround-sound audio; interactive navigation with menus and programmable control; and multilanguage and alternate viewing support with multiple video, audio, and subtitle streams. See also DVD-Audio, DVD-ROM.

DVD-Audio -- A DVD Forum-defined format for high-quality surround-sound audio. Also supports optional text, images, video, and menus. Manufactured or packaged with a version of the album in DVD-Video format. Currently designed for audiophiles, and not supported in many DVD players. See also DVD-Video, SACD.

DVD-VR -- DVD Video Recording. A modified form of the DVD format used to provide enhanced recording capabilities on some DVD-RW video recorders. Not as compatible with all DVD-Video players.

enhanced DVD -- A general term for a DVD-Video disc that also contains computer-readable material. The disc includes both the DVD-Video portion and a DVD-ROM data portion that is ignored by set-top DVD players. The enhanced features may include computer applications (PC- and/or Macintosh-specific, web pages, or dynamic links from the DVD playback to online web content. Also called hybrid DVD. See also Web DVD.

hybrid DVD -- A general term for a DVD-Video disc that contains both video and computer content. See also enhanced DVD.

Web DVD -- A general term for a DVD-Video disc with web-enhanced DVD content. May include web pages that combine local DVD video with current online content, or dynamic links from the DVD playback to online web content. See also DVD@ACCESS, enhanced DVD.

DVD@ACCESS -- Mechanism for linking from a DVD production to a website. Developed by Apple and supported in DVD Studio Pro. See also enhanced DVD, Web DVD.

NUON -- An extension to DVD players with enhanced entertainment or game content.

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- CD - Physical Disc Formats  -

CD-ROM -- Compact Disc - Read-Only Memory. The read-only compact disc format, used for prerecorded audio and data. See also CD-R.

CD-R -- Compact Disc - Recordable. A write-once compact disc format. Although the disc can be written in multiple sessions by appending more data, the data on each area of the disc can only be written one time. Because the data cannot be erased, the CD-R is useful for making permanent backups. See also CD-RW.

CD-RW -- Compact Disc - ReWritable. A re-recordable compact disc format. Contents of the disc can be recorded over, and the entire disc can be bulk erased and reused. See also CD-R.

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- DVD - Physical Disc Formats -

DVD Forum -- An industry consortium of international hardware manufacturers, software firms, and other DVD-related companies that developed the initial standards for the DVD physical disc and logical data formats.

DVD+RW Alliance -- An industry consortium developed the alternate recordable DVD formats, DVD+R and DVD+RW ("DVD plus"). See also DVD Forum.

DVD-ROM -- DVD Read-Only Memory. The DVD Forum-defined, read-only DVD format. Used for prerecorded audio and data. Also the computer-readable content on a DVD-Video disc. See also DVD-R.

DVD-R -- DVD Recordable. The DVD Forum-defined write-once DVD format. Because the data cannot be erased, the DVD-R is useful for making permanent backups. Recordable discs are more compatible with set-top DVD players than rewritable discs. See also DVD-R for Authoring, DVD-R for General, DVD+R, DVD-RW.

DVD-R for General -- Recordable DVD format for general consumer use. Lower-cost discs that do not support the professional content-protection features. See also DVD-R for Authoring.

DVD-R for Authoring -- Recordable DVD format for professional authoring use. Higher-cost discs that support the professional content-protection features. See also DVD-R for General.

DVD+R -- Alternate DVD Recordable write-once format developed by the DVD+RW Alliance. See also DVD-R, DVD+RW.

DVD-RW -- DVD ReWritable. The DVD Forum-defined, re-recordable DVD format. Like CD-RW, rewritable discs can be reused, but are more expensive than recordable, and are less compatible with set-top players. See also DVD-R, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM.

DVD+RW -- Alternate DVD ReWritable format developed by the DVD+RW Alliance. Intended to replace the capabilities of DVD-RW and DVD-RAM and also provide higher compatibility with set-top players. See also DVD+R, DVD-RW.

DVD-RAM -- DVD Random-Access Memory. The DVD Forum-defined, random-access DVD data format. Designed for data storage applications, with the capability to be accessed like a hard disk by reading and writing randomly, and with built-in error correction and defect management. Whereas DVD-RW discs can be overwritten 1000 times, DVD-RAM is designed to be written more than 100,000 times. See also DVD-R, DVD-RW.

DVD-Multi -- An umbrella DVD Forum-sponsored logo to identify DVD products, players and recorders, that support DVD-R, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM formats.

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- DVD-Video Features -

multilanguage DVD -- The DVD-Video format supports discs that can be played in multiple languages. Discs can contain different versions of material; each is tagged with an associated language code, including audio streams, subpicture streams for subtitles, and even menu paths for different languages. The user then can choose the desired material to view, or can select a language preference in the player setup menu.

multi-story DVD -- A DVD production with an alternate version of the same program material, accessed through user- and program-controlled conditional branching.

MultiAngle video -- DVD tracks can contain multiple video streams that can be switched between seamlessly. These tracks allow the user to choose from several different viewing angles when watching a concert. The DVD-Video format supports one main video track and up to eight alternate video streams. See also video stream.

multistream audio -- DVD presentations can contain multiple audio streams that can be switched between seamlessly. These are intended for uses such as multiple language support and commentaries. The DVD-Video format supports up to eight parallel audio streams. See also audio stream, multilanguage.

subtitle stream -- Each DVD track can have accompanying subtitle streams that display along with the track. Intended for uses such as allowing the user to choose from several different text translations of the audio dialog. Subtitles are actually implemented as subpicture streams of overlay graphics, so they can contain images as well as text. The DVD-Video format supports up to 32 subpicture streams per track. See also subpicture stream.

closed-caption -- Text characters invisibly buried within a video signal, which can be decoded and displayed decoded and displayed as subtitles by the television set. Independent of any subtitle streams included in a DVD-Video track.

seamless playback -- Continuous play without noticeable breaks or glitches. The DVD-Video format is designed to permit the user to switch seamlessly between alternate video, audio, and subtitle streams while playing a track because the streams must be authored in compatible formats. See also non-seamless playback.

non-seamless playback -- A noticeable break or interruption during playback. DVD playback can have visible brief pauses in playback when moving between different tracks. For example, this can occur when the laser needs to move to a different portion of the disc or refocus on the second layer of the disc, or when the player needs to execute a navigation command. See also seamless playback.

slide show -- A presentation of a sequence of still images that advance automatically after a specified duration, and can have an accompanying audio track. See also still show.

still show -- A presentation of a sequence of still images that must be advanced manually by the viewer by pressing a key on the Remote Control; does not have any audio track. See also slide show.

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- DVD Authoring Process -

DVD Authoring -- The process of creating a DVD production. This involves designing the overall navigational structure; preparing the multimedia assets (video, audio, images); designing the graphical look; laying out the assets into tracks, streams, and chapters; designing interactive menus; linking the elements into the navigational structure; and building the final production to write to DVD, CD, hard disk, or tape. Consumer DVD Authoring software applications automate much of this process, including compressing the input files into DVD formats and laying out menus with buttons linking to the assets. More professional DVD Authoring tools separate the asset encoding and premastering steps, and provide more control over the DVD design - including button highlights and programmable scripts with navigation commands.

asset -- Individual element imported into a DVD project, typically from an associated file on hard disk. Assets include video and audio clips, still images, subtitles, and menu and button graphics.

track -- In DVD authoring, typically used to describe a single sequential piece of material, such as a video clip or slide show, in a DVD project that is then connected by navigational links. A track contains a main video stream plus additional streams, including alternate MultiAngle video, audio, and subtitle streams. A track also can act as a menu, with subpicture button highlights.

navigation -- The flow of playback through different elements of a DVD production - including menus, tracks, and chapters within video clips. Navigation can be explicitly controlled by the viewer by menu selections, can be defined when the production is authored (such as returning to a menu after playback reaches the end of a clip), or can be controlled dynamically by navigational commands. See also link, path.

path -- A flow of playback through different elements of a DVD production. Also, the order in which buttons on a menu highlight as the viewer presses the up, down, left, and right buttons on the DVD Remote Control. See also link, navigation.

link -- A navigational connection between different elements of a DVD production, including menus and video clips. See also navigation, path.

multiplex -- To combine multiple data streams into a single stream, typically by interleaving sequential elements from each stream. In DVD authoring, often used to describe combining the separate DVD content files and navigational data into finished DVD format. See also format, layout.

simulate -- To preview the graphical look and interactive navigation of a DVD project. DVD authoring tools typically provide a built-in simulator to test the design before exporting to DVD format.

layout -- In DVD authoring, often used to describe the DVD creation step of combining the DVD content and navigational data into a DVD volume on hard disk. Layout multiplexes the video, audio, image, and subpicture streams, together with the navigational information, to create the DVD Volume format directories and files. Also, the result of the layout step - the DVD Volume on hard disk. See also DVD Volume, format, multiplex, premaster.

premaster -- The process of preparing the disc image format ready to record to a DVD disc or to transfer to a replication facility for manufacturing. See also format, layout.

disc image -- A single file that contains the data for a complete DVD production. A disc image can be burned very efficiently to a DVD disc because it is in exactly the format that the data will be stored on a DVD. The disc image can be recorded directly to DVD to create the proper data structures and DVD volume directories. It also can be transferred to DLT tape to be used at a replication facility to manufacture multiple copies of the disc. See also format.

format -- To prepare storage media, such as CD or DVD discs for writing. Also, in DVD authoring, often used to describe packaging the DVD Volume directories and files from a layout into a single disc image file, ready to burn to a DVD disc. See also disc image, premaster.

record -- For DVD or CD, to burn data to a recordable disc.

burn -- To record data to a removable disc. Typically used to record a music playlist to a recordable CD or a video production to a recordable CD or DVD.

duplication -- To record a small quantity of DVD (and CD) discs using a dedicated recorder. See also replication.

master -- For prerecorded discs, to create the master mold used in manufacturing DVD (and CD) discs. See also replication.

replication -- To manufacture DVD (and CD) discs in large quantities in a dedicated factory. Also includes mastering. See also duplication, premastering.

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- DVD Menus -

menu -- The main mechanism for navigating DVD productions. Typically consists of a background (still image or motion video), title text, buttons to link to different elements of the DVD (menus or video tracks), and background audio. The viewer interacts with the menu by pressing the up, down, left, and right keys on the Remote Control to cycle through the buttons; and then presses Select to activate the currently-highlighted button. See also button, motion menu.

button -- A selectable option on a DVD menu. Buttons can be graphics, text, thumbnail images, or motion video; with graphical highlighting to indicate the current selection state. See also menu, subpicture stream.

motion menu -- A DVD menu that incorporates motion video as the background image and/or in the thumbnail buttons to link to video tracks. The video is typically a short clip that repeats until a menu selection is made.

First Play -- Identifies the first element to be played when a DVD is first inserted in a player. Typically, an introductory sequence such as a copyright notice or the main disc Title menu. See also Title menu.

Title menu -- The menu in a DVD production designated as the Top or main menu for the disc. The Title menu is typically displayed when the disc first starts playing (sometimes after an introductory sequences), and contains navigational links to the contents of the entire disc. The viewer can access this menu at any time by pressing the Title key on the DVD remote control. See also First Play.

Setup menu -- For set-top DVD players, a menu built in to the player hardware to access global system parameters such as the preferred language and parental controls. For commercial movies on DVD, a menu that typically provides access to alternate audio formats such as Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound, alternate audio tracks with different languages, and subtitle text.

Scene Index menu -- A DVD menu screen or linked set of screens that contains thumbnail buttons to link to each chapter or key scene within a video sequence. Commercial movies on DVD typically contain a Scene Index to jump directly to a specific scene; then play from that point to the end. Automated DVD authoring tools typically create Scene Index menus to access each clip included on a DVD. Also called Chapter Index menu.

Title key -- A dedicated key on DVD remote controls that returns playback to the Top or main menu for the  disc. The action of this key is defined by the DVD author. See also Menu key, Return key, Video Title Set.

Menu key -- A dedicated key on DVD remote controls that typically returns playback to the main menu for the current section of the disc (that is, the current Video Title Set). The action of this key is defined by the DVD author. See also Return key, Title key.

Return key -- A dedicated key on DVD Remote Controls that is typically used to return back to the most recent menu from which the current menu was accessed. The action of this key is defined by the DVD author. See also Menu key, Title key.

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- Digital Multichannel Audio -

multichannel audio -- Audio stored in more than one component, typically representing different spatial positions, to be played on different speakers. Includes stereo (two-channel) and surround-sound audio.

surround sound -- Multichannel audio material designed to provide the effect of being in the middle of a collection of audio sources. Typically designed to be played through four or more speakers - placed to the left, center, and right - and in front and in back of the listener. See also Dolby Digital, Dolby Headphone, virtual surround sound.

downmix -- To convert from a multichannel audio program to fewer channels. For viewers who not have a surround-sound audio system, DVD players can downmix the DVD soundtrack to two-channel analog stereo, so the DVD can be played on a television or stereo system.

5.1 -- Surround-sound audio. See also Dolby Digital.

MPEG audio -- A multichannel, digital audio format created by Moving Picture Experts Group. One of the three required formats for PAL DVD-Video players. See also Dolby Digital, PCM.

PCM -- Acronym for Pulse Code Modulation. An uncompressed (lossless) digital audio format. The format used for CD-Audio and one of the required audio formats for DVD-Video Players. See also Dolby Digital, MPEG audio.

Linear PCM (LPCM) -- See PCM.

Dolby Digital -- Also called AC-3. Multichannel surround-sound audio encoding, used for cinemas and the home. Supports one to five full-range channels, plus a Low-Frequency Effects (LFE) channel for carrying low bass sounds. The five channels are Front Left, Front Center, Front Right, Left Surround, and Right Surround. Full surround-sound Dolby Digital is referred to as "5.1," for these five channels plus ".1" for the low-frequency channel. DVD-Video discs for NTSC are required to provide at least one Dolby Digital or PCM audio track. PAL/SECAM discs are required to provide at least one Dolby Digital, PCM, or MPEG-2 audio track. Discs may also have a separate stereo track, or DVD players can downmix a surround-sound signal to stereo. See also Dolby Headphone, Dolby Surround, DTS, SDDS, virtual surround sound.

Low-Frequency Effects (LFE) -- A separate audio channel designed to carry low bass sounds such as explosions and thunder. Used with multichannel surround-sound systems to separate these bass-only sounds that have no perceived directionality, and unburden the strongest bass main channels. Typically, this channel is routed to a subwoofer. This is the ".1" in Dolby Digital (AC-3) "5.1" channel audio.

subwoofer -- Dedicated speaker for low-frequency effects such as rumbles and explosions. See also surround sound.

DTS -- Acronym for Digital Theater Systems. A surround-sound audio system used in many movie theaters. An optional format for DVD-Video that requires a separate decoder. See also Dolby Digital, PCM.

SDDS -- Acronym for Sony Dynamic Digital Sound. A multichannel, surround-sound audio format used for cinemas. An optional format for DVD-Video. See also Dolby Digital, DTS.

virtual surround sound -- Audio processing that creates a simulated surround-sound effect by converting a surround-sound signal into a stereo signal, either for playback on two speakers or especially for playback with stereo headphones. See also Dolby Digital, Dolby Headphone, surround sound.

Dolby Headphone -- Audio signal processing that allows conventional stereo headphones to create a surround-sound effect. See also Dolby Digital, virtual surround sound.

Dolby Surround -- A method of processing audio to achieve four-channel surround sound with conventional analog audio signals. The signal sounds like normal stereo, with left and right channels when played back through a conventional stereo system. When played through an audio system equipped with a Dolby Surround Pro Logic decoder, it extracts the two additional channels, center and surround. See also Dolby Digital, virtual surround sound.

Dolby Surround Pro Logic -- The technology that decodes program material encoded in Dolby Surround format.

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- DVD Content Protection -

parental controls -- The DVD Video mechanism that permits a parent to prohibit a DVD player from playing DVD discs with more mature material. This feature depends on DVD discs being properly marked with an appropriate ratings level and then using the Setup menu in the DVD player to restrict playback of movies above a specified level. See also content protection.

content protection -- A variety of mechanisms designed to protect DVD content by controlling its use. These include copy protection techniques to prevent the disc from being copied, the Content Scrambling System (CSS) to encrypt the disc contents even if it is copied, and regional management to specify the geographical regions in which a disc can be played.

copy protection -- Mechanisms designed to protect DVD content from being copied. These include the Macrovision APS to prevent copying the analog video signal and the Copy Generation Management System (CGMS) to specify how many copies may be made of the disc.

Macrovision APS (Analog Protection System) -- The DVD Video copy-protection mechanism that prevents copying from a set-top DVD player to an analog videotape. This introduces distortions to the synchronization signals in the video output, so that video recorders cannot synchronize to the signal properly, although televisions will be able to display it correctly. See also content protection.

copy management -- Mechanisms designed to control the capability to copy DVD content from a disc. See also CGMS.

CGMS -- Acronym for Copy Generation Management System. The DVD Video copy management mechanism that defines the number of copies permitted of the DVD material. This can be set to none, one, or any number of copies. See also content protection.

CSS -- Acronym for Content Scrambling System. The DVD Video copy-protection mechanism that encrypts the DVD digital data to prevent it from being read without the proper decryption key. See also content protection.

regional management -- The DVD Video anti-piracy mechanism that marks a disc as playable only on players in specific geographical regions of the world. See also content protection.

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- DVD Disc Formats and Files -

UDF (Universal Disc Format) -- The file system used for DVDs (technically, the condensed micro-UDF). Designed to be uniform across all DVDs and be flexible enough to support a wide variety of uses of DVD. See also ISO-9660, UDF Bridge.

UDF Bridge -- A DVD file system combining the older ISO-9660 file system for CDs and micro-UDF for DVDs to provide backward compatibility for DVD players and computers.

ISO-9660 -- The file system used for CD-ROM. See also UDF (Universal Disc Format).

DVD Volume -- The DVD disc directory structure and files. You can create a DVD Volume on hard disk to play and test a project with a DVD player software application or burn the same files to a DVD disc. The DVD Volume is stored under a VIDEO_TS directory for the DVD-Video format. It includes Video Object (VOB) files with the actual multimedia data, video and audio; plus associated navigation information (IFO) and backup (BUP) files that describe their contents. These files are created for each Video Title Set (VTS), with the data split into multiple VOB files so that each file is no larger than 1GB. See also layout.

VIDEO_TS -- The root directory of a DVD-Video production  as stored on a DVD disc. See also AUDIO_TS, DVD Volume.

AUDIO_TS -- The root directory of a DVD-Audio production  as stored on a DVD disc. See also DVD Volume, VIDEO_TS.

VTS file -- Video Title Set files used to store the video contents (VOB files) and navigational information (IFO files) for each title in the DVD-Video disc format. See also DVD Volume.

IFO file -- Navigation information file for a title set in the DVD-Video disc format. See also DVD Volume.

BUP file -- Backup file in the DVD-Video disc format for the IFO navigation file of a title set. See also DVD Volume.

Video Object (VOB) -- A MPEG video program stream with multiplexed video, audio, subpictures, and control information. See also DVD Volume.

VOB file -- Video Object file in the DVD-Video disc format. See also DVD Volume.

DAT -- The file type used for video data on a Video CD disc. Contains MPEG-1 video.

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- DVD Internals - Titles - Streams - Programs -

Video Manager (VMG) -- The DVD Video data element that contains the global information and directory for the disc, including domains for multiple languages and regional and parental control settings. The VMG also typically contains the main title menu for navigating the entire disc, any introductory video clips, such as copyright notices. See also Video Title Set (VTS).

Video Title Set (VTS) -- The DVD-Video data element that contains a group of program material that shares the same menu hierarchy and basic data formats. Professional tools support multiple VTSs in order to organize the contents of a DVD into logical groups, and to include different kinds of material and formats on a single disc. See also title, Video Manager (VMG).

title -- The DVD Video data element within a title set (VTS) that contains a logical group of program material. Also used to describe the entire DVD production. See also program chain (PGC).

video stream -- Each DVD-Video track is based on a main video stream, which can be motion video, a still image, or a series of stills. The track also can contain additional alternate video streams. The DVD-Video format supports one main video track and up to eight alternate video streams. See also audio stream, MultiAngle video, track.

audio stream -- Each DVD track can have accompanying audio tracks that play along with the track. The DVD-Video format supports up to eight audio streams per track. See also multistream audio, video stream.

program chain (PGC) -- The DVD Video data element within a title that is the basic unit of playback used for both playback and navigation. A PGC can define a list of materials to be played in a specified order to present alternate versions of the same program material. The basic navigation of a DVD consists of playing each program chain (that is, a video clip), and then specifying pre- and post-commands to control the navigation between PGCs.

program (PG) -- The DVD Video data element within a program chain that typically contains a sequential piece of material such as a video chapter. See also cell.

cell -- The DVD Video data element within a program that is the smallest general navigation unit for defining jump points in the video and audio content.

GOP (Group of Pictures). In MPEG-2 video compression, a short sequence of interrelated frames.

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- DVD Internals - Subpictures - Subtitles -

subpicture stream -- Each DVD track can have accompanying subpicture streams that display along with the track. These are four-color graphics overlays used for button highlights on menus and for subtitles for video tracks. The DVD-Video format supports up to 32 subpicture streams per track. See also subtitle stream.

subtitle script -- A timed list of subtitles to be displayed during the playback of track, synchronized to the video and audio streams. Typically contains the subtitle text (actually a graphics file), and the start and stop time within the track timecode.

palette -- In DVD-Video, a set of 16 colors available for use in subpictures. Can be defined for each program chain. Subpicture and subtitle images must be defined with only four colors, but these can be mapped to a palette color and contrast level (transparency) when the subpicture is displayed.

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- DVD Internals - Navigation - Scripts -

script -- A list of programming instructions to be executed dynamically by the DVD player to change the playback behavior of the disc. See also navigation command.

navigation command -- Programming instruction that can be authored into the DVD production and executed dynamically by the DVD player. These can be used to examine the current playback state; calculate, store, and retrieve values; and then alter the playback by selecting different streams and tracks based on user input, or even randomly. See also script.

System Parameter (SPRM) Registers -- 24 built-in variables in DVD players that contain the current player settings. These can be used with scripts and navigational commands to program interactive behavior. See also General Parameter (GPRM) Registers.

General Parameter (GPRM) Registers -- 16 general variables in DVD players that can be used to store values for use with scripts and navigational commands to program interactive behavior. See also System Parameter (SPRM) Registers.

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